If a company is in the information services business, the costs of producing those revenues would be included in the "costs of sales." S.G.&A is the expense for internal coordination, as well as the efforts expended in securing cooperation from customers and suppliers.
 To make the two numbers comparable, I calculate the "rental" value of equity capital as the average cost of shareholder capital in 1994, which had a median value of 10.5%.
 The unusually high information to equity ratio for Germany reflects a financial structure that depends on bank financing to a greater extent than the US.
 This calculation is similar, but simpler than the EVA(TM) (Economic Value-Added) publicized by the firm of Stern Stewart & Co. I have compared the sums of Management Value-Added with the sums of EVA(TM) over an eight year period and found them reasonably close.
 Computerworld magazine has used the Information Productivity(TM) index for the past two years to publish the "Premier 100 Ranking" of the top US Corporations in making the most effective use of information management practices.
 When some corporate staff unit declares that it caters to other staffers as "customers", that is just a misnomer. They are overhead and therefore remain a part of "management" regardless of their claims.
 Knowledge Ecology and Knowledge Recycling may become the next management buzzword. Much of the attraction of the recently introduced Java language may have its origins in the general perception that elements of all computer applications should be reusable by making them capable of running on any computer, on any operating system in any network environment.
 See Paul A. Strassmann, The Politics of Information Management, The Information Economics Press, 1995